Vegetable and livestock production using natural sources of nutrients such as compost, crop residues, and manure and natural methods of crop and weed control, instead of using synthetic or inorganic agrochemicals. It is also called low input farming. In organic farming, it is important that all the necessary things required for growth are available in a timely manner around the plant, especially near the roots where it gets its food and water.
Organic farming is the oldest way of doing farming. Organic farming is very much native to India, and India was 100% Organic producer until 1960's. China is another country which has similar history. The farmers of these two countries are farmers of 40 centuries and it is organic farming that sustained them.
Conventional chemical farming uses manufactured (man made) chemical products such as fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides which are bad in a long term, whereas in Organic Farming only approved natural substances are used, such as manure for fertilizer and naturally-occurring substances for pest control and weed control.
Nature is the best role model for farming, since it does not use any inputs nor demand unreasonable quantities of water. The entire system is based on intimate understanding of nature's ways. The system does not believe in mining of the soil of its nutrients and do not degrade it in any way for today's needs. The soil in this system is a living entity and the soil's living population of microbes and other organisms are significant contributors to its fertility on a sustained basis and must be protected and nurtured at all cost.
Do not use anything which contains chemical. (e.g. fertilisers, pesticides, water etc.) Do not use dirty, contaminated water or water from unknown sources. Do not let water from other farms come to yours if that farm uses chemical. Never clean farm equipment and areas in the farm with any chemical based cleaning agent. Never burn the trash, try to make compost out of food/plant based waste or recycle the rest of material. Do not water plant more than it is required.
Get your soil tested to find out what is missing to do Organic Farming. Get your water tested to find out if there is any chemical inputs in the water. If your are preparing your own fertilisers, make sure it is chemical free by getting tested in lab. If you are buying fertilisers or natural pesticides from outside, please make sure that those are tested or certified. Create environment to attract friendly pest, birds. Create walls by growing grass to stop land degradation and increase water retention. Only use good quality seeds, specially the one which has less harvesting time. Always reuse farm waste inside the farm itself. Use no-tillage method. Use methods to attract birds which helps to reduce insects. Use other man made traps to attract insects.
Turmeric: mix cow urine in turmeric powder, mix water in this mixture at the ratio of 1:6 and use this solution for protect crops from larvae.
Neem extract- Neem has a great importance in Agriculture science. Neem extract includes components such as alkaloids, glycosides phinolen compounds. When pest eat or smell neem extract the pest fails to moult and in result neem extract causes to death of pest or decrease breeding capacity. Pesticides can be made by some household foods-
Other Fertilizers- Fish manure, bone manure , oilseeds cake, liquid fertilizer (plant extract, buttermilk, jaggery), butchers shop manure etc. onion, drumstick, nightshade, garlic, chili, buttermilk etc.
Fertilizer derived from vegetables and animals matter known as organic fertilizer. Some examples of organic fertilizer:
Farmyard manure: fertilizer prepared by components such as dung, urine, mulch of cattle shed waste
Vermicompost: fertilizer includes earthworm feces, naturally rotten things, earthworm’s egg masses, babyhood and many useful bacteria known as Vermicompost
Compost fertilizer: grass in field, crops remains after harvesting, bran, bagasse, cotton stalks etc.
Green Manure: by selecting early varieties, close sowing, and before flowering , it is buried in soil with help of plough. Such buried crops take one and half to two months for rotten. (If mulch of red gram buried in field, wheat yield increases by 40%)
Integrated pests and diseases management or various techniques of organic farming
Integrated/mixed cropping/inter-cropping method which involves planting different crops in same place. It helps to reduce growth of insects and it leads to avoid infestation of pests and diseases. Pests and diseases management can be also done by smell of some plants. e.g., Cucumber- beans, pomegranate-chili, Pearl millet -pigeon pea, carrot-tomato, sugarcane, potato etc.
Crop rotation method helps to control diseases caused by viruses and bacteria. Following are some rules of this method:
Do not replant same crop in same field more than one year, 25% field portion should keep reserved for Legumes crops, Divide field in 3-4 parts and do proper planning for crops in various group eggplant Roots(beet, onions , potatoes, garlic) in firs year, Then plant legumes(beans, pea etc) then cabbage ,broccoli and again plant roots in same place (in 4th year).
Trap crop- Trap crops can be used for minimize pest damage by attracting some kind of pests. After spraying extract of some trees it can be control. E.g., by planting African marigold in Tomato
Crop, pests give egg masses on marigold and main cash crop doesn’t affect by pests.
Leaf Yellowing in soybean is due to several reasons:Nitrogen deficiency - In fields that have been extremely dry (or extremely wet, rhizobial nodule development can be delayed resulting in nitrogen deficiency. As the soils receive rain (or dry out in wet years), the nodule forming bacteria will go to work and the deficiency symptoms will quickly disappear.Potassium deficiency - Irregular yellow mottling around leaflet margins. The yellow areas coalesce to form a more or less continuous, irregular yellow border.Rooting restrictions - Anything that restricts expansion of the root system (e.g. extremely wet or dry soil, compaction layers, sidewall compaction, etc.) can lead to reduced growth and potential leaf yellowing. With a restricted root system, the growing plant can’t access the nutrients (iron, potassium, nitrogen before nodulation). - Raj Shekhar – M.Sc. Agri. Banaras Hindu University
Onion is a mainly rabi season crop but with an objective of good return farmers are used to cultivate onion in kharif also. Varieties like Agrifound Darkred, Baswant-780,N-53 & Arka kalyan can be used during summer (kharif).Kharif nursery is prepared in July -Aug. and transplanting of bulbs can be done in Sep-Oct - Raj Shekhar – M.Sc. Agri. Banaras Hindu University
4. Termites control in root by natural method
Crop rotation - In some parts of India, farmers cultivate castor (Ricinus communis) on those plots which are severely attacked by termites. The next cropping season, the termite infestation has decreased appreciably. The control effect is attributed to root exudations.
Soil amendment - Castor press cake or neem cake can be incorporated into the soil in order to control the termite infestation. It is suggested to add it into the opened furrow before sowing the crop.
Incorporating green manure - Where possible, green manure crops can be ploughed into the soil. Moisture plus organic matter attract the termites and prevent them from attacking the target crop
- Raj Shekhar – M.Sc. Agri. Banaras Hindu University
3. Best organic method of avoiding spider mites in chilli is washing plants with strong stream of water spray for removing eggs, use of neem oils and some beneficial insects like ladybug, lace wing can also be used. - Raj Shekhar – M.Sc. Agri. Banaras Hindu University
The easiest way to prevent insect damage is to discourage them from coming in the first place. A healthy garden is the best defense.
• Pull out any weak plants. They may already be infected. If not, they will attract predators. Pull the plant and dispose of it away from the garden area.
• Build healthy, organic soil. Natural composting methods, mulching and top-dressing your soil with compost or natural fertilizer is the best way to develop strong, vigorous plants.
• Seaweed mulch or spray. Seaweed contains trace elements such as iron, zinc, barium, calcium, sulfur and magnesium, which promote healthy development in plants. Seaweed fertilizer in mulch or spray form will enhance growth and give plants the strength to withstand disease. Seaweed mulch also repels slugs.
• Minimize insect habitat. Clear garden area of debris and weeds which are breeding places for insects. Use clean mulch.
• Interplant and rotate crops. Insect pests are often plant specific. When plantings are mixed, pests are less likely to spread throughout a crop. Rotating crops each year is a common method to avoid re-infestation of pests which have over-wintered in the bed.
• Keep foliage dry. Water early so foliage will be dry for most of the day. Wet foliage encourages insect and fungal damage to your plants. See our page on drip-irrigation for methods of delivering water to the root systems without wetting the foliage.
• Disinfect. If you've been working with infested plants, clean your tools before moving on to other garden areas. This will reduce the speed of invading insects.
- Credit: Raj Shekhar – M.Sc. Agri. Banaras Hindu University
India had ancient wisdom of farming since beginning of human civilization. It came from enlightened Rishis who lived in forests and understood all the rhythms of nature. One of these great rishis was Parashara but there were many others who taught the art and science of cultivation as per Vedic science. A Method which is called ‘zero budget farming’ as the raw materials to produce amazing crops, amazing soil fertility and no trouble from pests is close to zero. One comes to understand why the cow was ‘sacred’ in Vedic civilization as through the profound alchemy in her physiology, the cow gives us dung and urine which are amazing medicines and amazing food and medicine for all crops. So the cow was the center of the Vedic village and is the center of Rishi Krishi. We are working hard to raise awareness so all may see how life can be conducted with nature and without having to harm or destroy any life so all may have ample food. Even in the most deserted of soils one can revive with these methods below.
For cow it is recommended to use traditional cow of India not the hybrids that are becoming popular in India and also found mostly outside of India
- Credit: Raj Shekhar – M.Sc. Agri. Banaras Hindu University
Chilli crop is attacked by a large number of pathogens but heavy losses are caused due to viruses. Several viral diseases attack this crop and induce mild to severe mosaic, yellow mosaic, mosaic mottle, leaf curl, leaf roll, bushy stunt and necrosis symptoms.
The use of Neem seed kernal extract in soil ,Spray of Neem solution at particular interval and seed Treatment with a solution of jaggery, neem oil and cow urine is very much effective.
To achieve maximum yields, groundnut or peanut fields should be kept as free as possible from competing weeds. Plants should be supplied with additional irrigation if dry conditions coincide with flowering and pod fill. Peanuts do not generally require the addition of supplemental nitrogen as their roots form symbioses bacteria which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. Peanuts require calcium in the soil for good pod fill. the calcium in the soil is absorbed directly by the pods in the pegging zone. Calcium deficient soils may result in empty or poorly filled pods.
Mulching the ginger beds with green leaves is an essential operation to enhance germination of seed rhizomes and to prevent washing off soil due to heavy rain. This also helps to add organic matter to the soil and conserve moisture during the later part of the cropping season. The first mulching is to be done with green leaves @ 10 - 12 t/ha at the time of planting. It is to be repeated @ 5 t/ha at 40th and 90th day after planting. Use of Lantana camara and Vitex negundo as mulch may reduce the infestation of shoot borer. Cow dung slurry or liquid manure may be poured on the bed after each mulching to enhance microbial activity and nutrient availability. Weeding may be carried out depending on the intensity of weed growth. Such materials may be used for mulching. Proper drainage channels are to be provided in the inter rows to drain off stagnant water.
Manuring-Application of well rotten cow dung or compost @ 5-6 t/ha may be made as a basal dose while planting the rhizomes in the pits. Enriched compost giving a start to phosphorus and potassium requirements may be highly useful. In addition, application of neem cake @ 2 t/ha is also desirable.
Green manuring with lupin 60 days before planting. Sprinkling horn manure to the soil @ 75 g/ha by dissolving it in 40 litres of water at the time of land preparation. Application of well decomposed farm yard manure @ 50 t/ha at the time of land preparation. Application of biodynamic compost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation. Application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha at the time of land preparation. Application of neem cake @ 1250 kg/ha at the time of land preparation. Application of biofertilizers like Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 25 kg each/ha at the time of land preparation. Spraying cow pat pit @ 5 kg/ha in 100 liters of water on 45th, 60th and 75th day after planting.To increase the pH of the soil, application of dolomite @ 10 tonnes/ha should be done
- If number of infected plants is less, then these can be picked by hand and killed.
- Cover crop with insect barriers.
- Andrographis paniculata(kalmegh) decoction 3 to 5 % can be used.
- For preparation of decoctions, plant is taken and cut into small pieces excluding roots. One kg of this is mixed with four litres of water and placed in a mud pot. This is boiled and reduced to one litre. On cooling, 500 ml of this extract is mixed with 100 ml of soap solution and 9.4 litres of water and sprayed on the top.
- Garlic, Chilli, Ginger extract
- Paste of 18 g of garlic,9 g of green chilli and 9 g of ginger is made. All the three pastes are dissolved in 1 litre of water. This mixture is stirred well and filtered before spraying. 500 ml of this extract is made with 100 ml of soap solution and 9.4 litres of water and sprayed on the top.
- Spray the foliage of plants with neem oil.